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Announcement: SYJC (12th): Circle, Conics and Bivariate frequency distribution chapters have been removed from SYJC (12th) Maths syllabus from academic years 2013-14. Class XII BIOLOGY SYLLABUS FOR Maharashtra HSC, 2014, 2015, 2016
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Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution : Chapter 1 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance:
Mendelian inheritance. Deviations from
Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete
multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood
groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of
Chapter 2 - Gene: its nature, expression and regulation:
Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron,
muton and recon. DNA as genetic
material, structure of DNA as given by
Watson and Crick's model, DNA
Packaging, semi conservative replication
of eukaryotic DNA.
RNA: General structure, types and
Protein Synthesis; central dogma,
Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code,
Gene Expression and Gene Regulation
(The Lac operon as a typical model of
Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application: Chapter 3 - Biotechnology: Process and Application :
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages;
Producing Restriction Fragments,
Preparing and cloning a DNA Library,
Gene Amplification (PCR).
Application of Biotechnology in
Agriculture – BT crops
Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)
Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare : Chapter 4 - Enhancement in Food Production
Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular
Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief),
Callus Culture, Suspension Culture.
Single Cell Protein. Biofortification.
Chapter 5 - Microbes in Human Welfare:
Microbes in Household food processing.
Microbes in Industrial Production.
Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
Microbes as Biofertilizers.
Unit 4: Plant Physiology : Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis
Site of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and
Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4
Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration,
Factors affecting Photosynthesis.
Law of limiting factors.
Chapter 7 - Respiration
ATP as currency of Energy
Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA
Cycle and Electron Transport System)
and Anaerobic Respiration. Fermentation
Exchange of gases
Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient
Significance of Respiration.
Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms : Chapter 8 - Reproduction in Plants
Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and
Asexual reproduction; uniparental modesvegetative
Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower
Development of male gametophyte,
Structure of anatropous ovule.
Development of female Gametophyte.
Pollination: Types and Agencies.
Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil
Double Fertilization: Process and
Post-fertilization changes (development of
endosperm and embryo, development of
seed and formation of fruit)
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy,
polyembryony. Significance of seed and
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I :
Habitat and Niche
Ecosystems: Patterns, components,
productivity and decomposition, energy
flow; pyramids of number, biomass,
energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and
Ecological succession, Ecological servicescarbon
fixation, pollination, oxygen
release. Environmental issues:
agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste
management, Green house effect and
global warming, ozone depletion,
deforestation, case studies (any two).
Section II - ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution : Chapter 10 - Origin and the Evolution of Life :
Origin of Life: Early Earth, Spontaneous,
assembly of organic compounds,
Evolution: Darwin’s contribution, Modern
Synthetic Theory of evolution, Biological
Evidences, Mechanism of evolution;
Gene flow and genetic drift;Hardy-
Weinberg principle; Adaptive radiation.
Origin and Evolution of Human being.
Chapter 11 - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
The Chromosomal Theory.
Linkage and Crossing Over.
Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and
Sex Determination in Human being, birds,
honey bee.Mendelian disorders in
disorders in human: Down’s syndrome,
Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s
Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application: Chapter 12- Genetic Engineering and Genomics
DNA Finger Printing.
Genomics and Human Genome Project.
Biotechnological Applications in Health:
Human insulin and vaccine production,
Gene Therapy. Transgenic animals.
Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13- Human Health and Diseases
Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types,
Structure of Antibody, Antigen-Antibody
Complex, Antigens on blood cells.
Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis,
Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid,
Pneumonia, Common cold and ring worm).
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Cancer and AIDS.
Chapter 14- Animal Husbandry
Management of Farms and Farm Animals.
Unit 4: Human Physiology : Chapter 15- Circulation
Blood composition and coagulation, Blood groups.
Structure and pumping action of Heart. Blood Vessels.
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation.
Heart beat and Pulse. Rhythmicity of Heart
beat. Cardiac output, Regulation of
Blood related disorders: Hypertension,
coronary artery disease, angina pectoris,
and heart failure.
ECG, Lymphatic System (Brief idea):
Composition of lymph and its functions.
Chapter 16- Excretion and osmoregulation
Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism,
Composition and formation of urine.
Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation.
Regulation of kidney function: reninangiotensin,
atrial natriuretic factor,
ADH and Diabetes inspidus, role of
other organs in excretion.
Disorders; Kidney failure, Dialysis, Kidney
stone (renal calculi). Transplantation.
Chapter 17- Control and Co-ordination Nervous System
Structure and functions of brain and
Spinal cord, brief idea about PNS and
Transmission of nerve impulse.
Sensory receptors (eye and ear), Sensory
perception, general idea of other sense
Hormones and their functions
Mechanism of hormone action.
Hormones as messengers and regulators.
Hormonal imbalance and diseases:
Common disorders (Dwarfism,
Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter,
exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus,
Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms : Chapter 18- Human Reproduction
Reproductive system in male and female.
Histology of testis and ovary.
Production of gametes, fertilization,
Embryo development up to three germinal
Pregnancy, placenta, parturition and
lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health-birth control,
Contraception and sexually transmitted
diseases.MTP, Amniocentesis; Infertility
and assisted reproductive technologies-
IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment : Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II :
Population and ecological adaptations:
competition, predation, parasitism,
population attributes- growth, birth rate
and death rate, age distribution.
Biodiversity and its conservation-
Biodiversity- concept, patterns, importance,
loss. Threats to and need for biodiversity
conservation, Hotspots, endangered
organisms,extinction,red data book,
biosphere reserves, national parks and
sanctuaries. Environmental issues: air
pollution and its control, water pollution
and its control and radioactive waste
management. (Case studies any two)