From Class XI Syllabus UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD
What is living?
- Concept of Biodiversity
Classification of the living organisms
- Need for classification
- Three domains of life
- Five kingdoms of life and basis of five kingdom classification
- Virus and Virioids
Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature
- Taxonomy & Systematics
- Concept os species & taxonomic heirarchy
- Binomial nomenclature
- Salient features of classification of Monera, Protoctista (Protista) and Fungi into major groups
- Salient features of classification of plants into major groups: Algae, Bryophytes,Pteriodophytes, Gymnosperms and features of each category and at least two examples of each
- Angiosperms: classification upto class, characterisation features and examples
- Salient features of animals: Major non-chordates phyla and chordate classes. Three to five salient features and at least two examples
- Tools for study of biodiversity: Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, botanical gardens
UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS
- Tissues in animals and plants
- Morphology including modifications, microscopic anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, Stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant Practicals of the Practcal Syllabus)
- Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) (Brief account only)
UNIT III: CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
- Cell and its three major parts: Cell Membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
- Cell theory and the cell as the basic unit of life
- Structure of the Prokanyotic and eucaryotic cell
- Plant cell and animal cell (brief)
- Cell Organelles:Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall structure and
function: mitochondria, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, plastids, microbodies
- Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (Ultrastructure and function)
- Nucleus: nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
- Chemical constituents of living cells
- Biomolecules: Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, lipids and nucleic acids
- Enzymes: types, properties, function and enzyme action
- Cell division: Cell cycle, significance of, and differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
UNIT IV: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases
- Absorption of water, gases and nutrients
- Cell to Cell transport
- Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport
- Plant-Water Relations
- Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis
- Long Distance Transport
- Apoplant, symplast, root pressure, transpiration pull
- Transportation and Guttation
- Opening and closing of stomata
- Role of K+ ions
-Uptake of mineral and their translocation
- Transportation through xylem and phloem
-Plants and mineral nutrition
- Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role
- Defficiency symptoms
- Mineral toxicity
- Elementry idea of Hydroponics as a Method to study mineral nutrition
- Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
- Exchange of gases
- Cellular respiration: glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic)
- Energy Relation: Number of ATP molecules generated
- Amphibiotic pathways
- Respiratory quotient of nutrients
- Autotropic nutrition
- Site of photosynthesis
- Photosynthetic pigments (Elementary idea)
- Photosynthetic and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
- Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
- Chemismotic hypothesis
- C and C pathways
- Factors affecting photosynthesis
- Law of Limiting Factors
-Plant Growth and Development
- Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate
- Condition fo Growth
- Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation
- Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell
- Growth regulators: auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA
- Photomorphogenesis including brief account of phytochromes
- Seed germination
- Seed dormancy
UNIT V: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Digestion and Absorption
- Human alimentary canal and Digestive glands
- Role of digesitive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
- Digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
- Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
- Nutritional and digestive disorders: P E M, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice
Breathing and Respiration
- Respiratory organts in animals (Recall only)
- Respiratory system in humans
- Mechanism of Breathing and its regulation in humans
- Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration in humans
- Respiratory volumes
- Disorders related to respiration: Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational Respiratory disorders
Body fluids and Circulation
- Composition of blood, Blood groups, Coagulation of blood
- Composition of Lymph and function
- Human circulatory system
- Structure of human heart and blood vessels
- Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG
- Double circulation
- Regulation of cardiac activity
- Disorders of circulatory system: Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, heart failure
Excretory products and their elimination
- Modes of excretion: Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism
- Human excretory system-structure and function
- Urine formation, Osmoregulaion
- Regulation of kidney function, Renin-angiotensin, Antinatriuretic factor, ADH and Diabeters insipidus
- Role of other organs in excretion
- Disoders: Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis
- Dialysis and artificial kidney
Locomotion and Movement
- Types of movement: ciliary, flagellar, muscular
- Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction
- Skeletal system and its functions. (to be dealt with the relvent practical of practical syllabus)
- Disorders of muscular and skeletal systm: Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis Gout
Neural control and coordination
- Neural and nerves
- Nervous system in humans
- Central Nervous system, Peripheral Nervous system and Viseral Nervous system
- Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
- Reflex action
- Sensory Perception
- Elementary structure and function of eye and ear and general idea of other sense organs
Chemical coordination and regulation
- Endocrine glands and hormones
- Human endocrine system: Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads
- Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea)
- Role of hormones as messengers and regulators
- Hypo- and hyperactivity and related disorders, (Common disorders eg. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease)
IMP: Diseases related to all the human physiology systems to be taught in brief.
From Class XII Syllabus UNIT 1 REPRODUCTION
Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of
Modes of reproduction- Asexual and sexual.
- Flower structure.
- Development of male and female gametophytes.
- Pollination-type-agencies and examples.
- Outbreeding devices.
- Pollen-Pistil interaction.
- Double fertilization
- Post fertilization events
- Development of endosperm & embryo
- Development of seed and formation of fuit.
- Seed development
- Fruit formation.
- Special modes: apomixes, parthenocarpy, Polyembryony.
- Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Male and female reproductive systems.
- Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
- Gametogenesis: spermatogenesis & oogenesis.
- Menstrual cycle
- Fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation implantation.
- Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
- Parturition (Elementary idea).
- Lactation (Elementary idea.
- Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
- Birth Control: Need and Methods.
- Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
- Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit II GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
Heredity and variation
- Mendelian Inheritance
- Deviations from Mendelism, incomplete dominance Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood group, pleiotropy.
- Elementary idea of Polygenic Inheritance
- Chromosome theory of inheritance
- Chromosomes and genes.
- In humans, birds, honey bee.
- Linkage and crossing over.
- Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilla, Colour blindness.
Mendellin disorders in humans
- Chromosomal disorders in humans.
- Down's syndrome, Turner's and klinefelter's syndromes.
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material.
- Structure of DNA and RNA
- DNA packaging
- DNA replication
- Central dogma
- Transcription, genetic code, translation.
- Gene expression and regulation.
- Genome and human genome project.
- DNA finger printing.
Origin of life
Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution
(Paleontological from comparative anatomy and embryology and
- Darwin's contribution /Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
- Hardy - Weinberg's principle.
Mechanism of evolution: Variation (Mutation & Recombination) and
Natural Selection with examples drift types of natural slection
- Gene flow and genetic
- Adaptive Radiation
Unit III BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE
Health and Disease
- Basic concepts of immunology: vaccines
- Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
- Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
- Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse.
- Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation.
- Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book.
- Biodiversity conservation- biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.
- Air Pollution and its control
- Water pollution and its control
- Agrochemicals and their effects
- Solid waste management
- Radioactive waste management
- Greenhouse effect and global warming
- Ozone depletion, deforestation.
- Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
1. Biology Part-I, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
2. Biology Part-II, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
3. Biology Part-I, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
4. Biology Part-II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT