From Class XI Syllabus Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination.
Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit II: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations, Rutherford's model and its limitations. Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence,
Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules, hydrogen bond.
Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law. Charles
law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea).
Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Unit VI: Thermodynamics
Concepts Of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics - internal energy (U) and enthalpy change (H), heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of
ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Second and Third Law of Thermodynamics.
Unit VII: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle; ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases,
strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acide strength, concept of pH. Henderson Equation. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
Unit IX : Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate,
biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3
and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements General Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies and uses.
Group 14 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides.
Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses and structure of silicates.
Unit XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. - nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
From Class XII Syllabus Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two
dimensional and three dimensional lattices, packing efficiency. Calculation of density of unit
cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects,
electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and
insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of
gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties-relative lowering of vapour pressure,
Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure,
determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass,
van't Hoff factor and calculations involving it.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity
variations with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis
(elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a
cell, standard electrode potential. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,
Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction:
concentration, temperature, catalyst, order and molecularity of a reaction: rate law and
specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order
reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
catalysis, homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis,
colloidal state, distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions, lyophilic,
lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, properties of colloids, Tyndall
effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion-types of emulsions,
Elementary idea of nanomatereials.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction-concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic
method and refining, occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc and
Unit VII: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation
states, trends in physical and chemical properties, nitrogen-preparation , properties and
uses, compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides
of nitrogen (structure only) , Phosphorus-allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus,
preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxo acid's (elementary
idea only) Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, di oxygen, preparation, properties
and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, sulphur-allotropic forms, compounds of sulphur,
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, industrial process of
manufacture, properties and uses, other oxides and oxoacids of sulphur (structures only)
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends In physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens:
preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen
compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals-metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic
properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7
Lanthanoids-electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid
contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids- Electronic configuaration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Co-ordination compounds
Co-ordination compounds-Introduction, ligands, co-ordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
co-ordination compounds. Bonding (Werner's theory, VBT and CFT); structural and stereo
isomerism importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion of analysis,
extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Haloalkanes:
Nomenclature nature of C-X bond physical and chemical properties, mechanism of
substitution reactions. Stability of carbocations, R-S and d-I configurations Haloarenes:
Nature of C-X bond substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for
monosubstituted compounds only, stability of carbocations R-S and d-I configurations) Uses
and environmental effects of-dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of
primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols;
mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic
nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenol. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes and Ketones and Carboxylic Acids: Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha
hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds: General methods of preparation and chemical reactions. Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides-will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic
Unit XIV: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses) monosaccharides (glucose and
fructose). D-L configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) polysaccharides
(starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance. Proteins: Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary
structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea
only). Denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Lipids and hormones, their classification and functions. Vitamins-Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA
Unit XV: Polymers
Classification-natural and synthetic methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon,
polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life: 1. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics, tranqilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines, antioxidants. 2. Chemicals in food: preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. 3. Cleansing agents: soaps and detergent, cleansing action.
1. Chemistry Part - I,Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
2. Chemistry Part - II,Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
3. Chemistry Part-I, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
4. Chemistry Part-II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT