From Class XI Syllabus Unit I: Physical World and Measurement
Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, Fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Unit II: Kinematics
Frame of reference (Internal and non-internal frames). Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion
Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors andnotation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
Unit III: Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.
Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road)
Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
Unit VI: Gravitation
Keplar's laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth and rotation of earth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity.
Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, Reynold's number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli's theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, ideal gas laws, isothermal and adiabatic processes; anamolous expansion and its effect, specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state - specific latent heat capacity. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Blackbody radiation Kirchoff's Law, absorption and emission powers and greenhouse effect, thermal conductivity, Newton's law of cooling, Wein's displacement law, Stefan's law.
Unit VIII: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes.
Heat engines and refrigerators.
Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature;
rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro's number.
Unit X: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement
relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
From Class XII Syllabus Unit I: Electrostatics Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges,
forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge
distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric
dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric
flux, statement of Gauss, theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical
shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due
to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential
energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics
and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and
in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium
between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.
Unit II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and
their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics
(linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power electrical resistivity and conductivity.
Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of
resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.Internal resistance of a cell, potential
difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.Elementary idea of
secondary cells.Kirchoffs' laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.
Potentiometer-Principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for
comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment.Biot-Savart law and its application to
current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law its applications to infinitely long straight wire,
straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric
fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying in uniform magnetic magnetic field. Force
between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque
experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its
current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic
dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and
perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic
field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid. Magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and
magnetic elements.Para-dia and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.Electromagnets
and factors affecting their strengths.Permanent magnets.
Unit IV: Electromagnetic induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy
currents.Self and mutual induction.Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating
current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only).LCR
series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.AC generator and
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative
ideas only).Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio
waves, microwaves, infrared, visible ultraviolet, xrays, gamma rays) including elementary
facts about their uses.
Unit VI: Optics Ray Optics (Geometric Optics):
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal
reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin
lens formula, lens-maker's formula. Newton's relation: Displacement method to find
position of images (conjugate points) Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thinlenses
in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light
through a prism.
Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and
sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect. Optical instruments: Human eye, image
formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia,
presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes
(reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics (Physical Optics): Wave front and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a
plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens,
principle interference. Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width
of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.
Polarization, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation.Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's
photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter waves-waves nature or particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment
(experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained.
Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particles scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy
levels, hydrogen spectrum. Continuous and characteristic X-rays.Composition and size of
nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.Radio activity alpha, beta and gamma
particles/rays and their properties radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass
number; nuclear fission and fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and Semiconductors; semiconductor diode - IV
characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED,
photodiode, solar cell, and zener diode;
Zener diode as a voltage regulator.Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a
transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic
gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Unit X: Communication systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV
and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium.Propagation of electromagnetic waves
in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and
detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.
1. Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
2. Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
3. Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
4. Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT