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General Principles and processes of Isolation of Elements
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
Chemistry in Everyday life
Practical Oriented Questions
Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two
dimensional and three dimensional lattices, packing efficiency. Calculation of density of unit
cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects,
electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and
insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of
gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties-relative lowering of vapour pressure,
Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure,
determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass,
van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity
variations with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis
(elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a
cell, standard electrode potential. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,
Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction:
concentration, temperature, catalyst, order and molecularity of a reaction: rate law and
specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order
reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
catalysis, homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis,
colloidal state, distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions, lyophilic,
lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, properties of colloids, Tyndall
effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion-types of emulsions,
Elementary idea of nanomatereials.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction-concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic
method and refining, occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc and
Unit VII: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation
states, trends in physical and chemical properties, nitrogen-preparation , properties and
uses, compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides
of nitrogen (structure only) , Phosphorus-allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus,
preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxo acid’s (elementary
idea only) Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, di oxygen, preparation, properties
and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, sulphur-allotropic forms, compounds of sulphur,
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, industrial process of
manufacture, properties and uses, other oxides and oxoacids of sulphur (structures only)
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends In physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens:
preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen
compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals-metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic
properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7
Lanthanoids-electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid
contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids- Electronic configuaration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Co-ordination compounds
Co-ordination compounds-Introduction, ligands, co-ordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
co-ordination compounds. Bonding (Werner’s theory, VBT and CFT); structural and stereo
isomerism importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion of analysis,
extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Haloalkanes:
Nomenclature nature of C-X bond physical and chemical properties, mechanism of
substitution reactions. Stability of carbocations, R-S and d-I configurations Haloarenes:
Nature of C-X bond substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for
monosubstituted compounds only, stability of carbocations R-S and d-I configurations) Uses
and environmental effects of-dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of
primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols;
mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic
nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenol. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes and Ketones and Carboxylic Acids: Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha
hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds: General methods of preparation and chemical reactions. Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides-will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic
Unit XIV: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses) monosaccharides (glucose and
fructose). D-L configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) polysaccharides
(starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance. Proteins: Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary
structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea
only). Denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Lipids and hormones, their classification and functions. Vitamins-Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA
Unit XV: Polymers
Classification-natural and synthetic methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon,
polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life: 1. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics, tranqilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines, antioxidants. 2. Chemicals in food: preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. 3. Cleansing agents: soaps and detergent, cleansing action.