Indian Forest Services Exam (IFS): Forestry Syllabus
Candidates will be required to answer questions from Sections A and B or Sections A and C below. There will be six questions in Section A, five each in B and C. The candidates will be required to attempt minimum three and maximum four from Section A and minimum two and maximum three from either Section B or C.
General silvicultural principles; ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation; natural and artificial regeneration of forests; nursery techniques; seed technology collection, storage, pre-treatment and germination; establishment and tendings.
Silvicultural systems-clear felling, uniform, shafter-wood, selection, coppice and conversion systems. Silviculture of some of the economically important species of India such as Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia nilotica, Albizzia spp, Artocarpus spp., Anogeissus spp., Bambusa spp., Casnarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia spp., Diptaerocarpus spp., Eucaiyptus spp., Gmeiina arborea, Lagerstroemia spp., Populus spp., Salmaliamalabarica, Shorearobusta, Tectonagrandis, Terminatia spp.
Social forestry-objectives, scope, necessity; agro-forestry; extension forestry: recreation forestry; people's participation.
Forest Mensuration and Management
Methods of measuring-diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form factor; volume estimation of stand: sampling methods; yield calculation; current annual increment; mean annual increment; sample plots; yield and stand tables; scope and objectives of forest inventory; aerial survey and remote-sensing techniques.
Forest management-objectives and principles; techniques; sustained yield relation; normal forest; growing stock; regulation of yield-methods of application; working plans-preparation and control.
Logging and extraction techniques and principles; transport, storage and sale. Minor forest product definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oilseeds, nuts, rubber, cares, bamboo, medicinal plants, charcoal, apiary, sericulture, lac and shellac, Tassar silk, Katha and Bidi leafs. Collection, processing and disposal of minor forest products.
Wood technology; anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of wood; defects and abnormalities; composite and other wood products; pulp, paper and rayon. Saw milling, wood seasoning and preservation.
Injuries to forests-abiotic and biotic; insect pests and diseases; General forest protection against fire, insect, pests and diseases; biological and chemical controls.
Forest Ecology and Forest Biology
Biotic and abiotic components of forest ecology; forest ecosystems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts; ecological succession and climax; primary productivity; nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging, alkalinity and salinity); composition of forest types in India; species composition and associations; dendrology; taxo-noxic classifications; identification of species; principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Principles and concepts of tree improvement; methods and techniques; exotics.
Ecology and biology of wild-life; principles and techniques of managements; endangered species; wild-life conservations.
Forest Economics, Policies and Legislation: Fundamental principles of forest economics; cost-benefit analysis; estimation of demand and supply; assessment and projection of market structures; role of corporate financing; socio-economic analyses of forest productivity and attitudes. History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894 and 1952; National Commission on Agriculture-report on forestry; Constitution of Wasteland Development Board, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education.
Forest laws; necessity; general principles; Indian Forest Act, 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wild-life (Protection) Act, 1972.
Forest Surveying and Engineering
Different methods of surveying-chain, prismatic, compass, paintable and topographic surveys; area calculation; maps and map reading.
Basic principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads-objects and classification, general principles; construction. Bridges-general principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.
Forest Soils and Soil Conservation
Classification; factors affecting soil formation; physical and chemical properties.
Soil Conservation-definitions; causes of erosion; types of wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded areas; wind-breaks, shelter belts, fixation of sand dunes; reclamation of alkaline; saline, water-logged and other wastelands.
Watershed Management-objective and methods.